日英ことわざ文化事典

日英ことわざ文化事典

著者名 山田 雅重
亀田 尚己 編集協力
Ryan smithers 英文校閲
発行元 丸善出版
発行年月日 2017年06月
判型・装丁 四六 188×128
ページ数 338ページ
ISBN 978-4-621-30166-1
Cコード 0582
ジャンル 人文科学 >  人文科学_総記・事典
論文・語学 >  語学

内容紹介

日英両語の主な諺や慣用句などの比喩的表現を約600取り上げ、それぞれの由来や語義を平易に解説する事典。学校で習ったりして親しまれた諺や慣用句などの比喩的表現を取っ掛かりにして英語と日本語の表現が学べる。具体的には「沈黙は金」のような隠喩と「光陰矢の如し」のような直喩の事例を中心に解説。また各解説には、必要に応じてたとえ表現に含まれる単語や語句の歴史にも言及し、その成立過程も解説することで、各表現が一層、読者に親しみやすくなり、英語への関心が高められるような内容構成。英語と日本語のたとえ表現の違いは、英米人と日本人の比喩的思考の心像風景の差とも言えるため、本書の解説を通して、広く英語圏の歴史や文化、そして英米人の考え方などについても学ぶことができる。

目次

第I部 日本語のことわざを英語で表現すると
 1 数にまつわる表現編
  あ行 悪事千里を行く/明日の百より今日の五十/当たるも八卦、当たらぬも八卦/石の上にも三年/板子一枚下は地獄/一か八か/一事が万事/一度あることは二度ある/一難去ってまた一難/一に看病二に薬/一姫二太郎/一文惜しみの百知らず/一葉落ちて天下の秋を知る/一利あれば一害あり/一蓮托生/一を聞いて十を知る/一挙両得/一犬影に吠ゆれば万犬声に吠ゆ/一寸先は闇/一寸の虫にも五分の魂/一石二鳥/ 一斑を見て全豹を知る/色の白いは七難隠す/傍目八目/鬼も十八、番茶も出花/お前百までわしゃ九十九まで/  親の七光り/女三人寄れば姦しい
  か行 可愛さ余って憎さ百倍/口八丁手八丁/ 子は三界首枷
  さ行 酒は百薬の長/三十六計逃げるに如かず/三度目の正直/三人寄れば文殊の知恵/四苦八苦/十人十色(といろ)/雀百まで踊り忘れず/千里の道も一歩より起こる/千慮の一失 
  た行 鶴の一声
  な行 無くて七癖/七転び八起き/七度尋ねて人を疑え/二階から目薬/二足の草鞋を履く/二度あることは三度ある/盗人にも三分の理
  は行 八方美人/話半分/早起きは三文の得/腹八分に医者いらず/人の噂も七十五日/人は一代、名は末代/人を呪わば穴二つ/百日の説法、屁一つ/百聞は一見に如かず/仏の顔も三度
  ま行 三日坊主/三日見ぬ間の桜/三つ子の魂百まで/娘三人持てば身代潰す
 2 動物にまつわる表現編
  あ行 虻蜂取らず/慌てる蟹は穴へ這入れぬ/生き馬の目を抜く(ようなところ)/鼬の最後っ屁/犬骨折って鷹の餌食/犬も歩けば棒に当たる/井の中の蛙大海を知らず/鰯の頭も信心から/魚心あれば水心/牛に引かれて善光寺参り/牛は牛連れ、馬は馬連れ/馬の耳に念仏/蝦で鯛を釣る/同じ穴の貉
  か行 飼い犬に手を噛まれる/蛙の子は蛙/蛙の面に水/亀の甲より年の劫/借りて来た猫/雉も鳴かずば打たれまい/木に縁りて魚を求む/窮鼠猫を噛む/腐っても鯛/犬猿の仲/虎穴に入らずんば虎子を得ず
  さ行 鯖を読む/猿も木から落ちる/鹿を逐う者は山を見ず/蛇の道は蛇/将を射んと欲せば馬を射よ/前門の虎、後門の狼
  た行 蓼食う虫も好き好き/虎と思いて石を射る/捕らぬ狸の皮算用
  な行 泣きっ面に蜂/逃がした魚は大きい/人間万事塞翁が馬/猫に鰹節/猫に小判/能ある鷹は爪隠す
  は行 瓢箪で鯰を押さえる/河豚は食いたし命は惜しし/夫婦喧嘩は犬も食わぬ
  や行 柳の下にいつも鰌はおらぬ
 3 色にまつわる表現編
  あ行 青柿が熟柿を弔う/青菜に塩/青二才/青は藍より出でて藍より青し/赤信号みんなで渡れば怖くない
  か行 紅は園生に植えても隠れなし/紺屋の白袴
  さ行 朱に交われば赤くなる/白羽の矢が立つ
  た行 月がとっても青いから/亭主の好きな赤烏帽子/隣の花は赤い
 4 その他の興味深い表現編
  あ行 会うは別れの始め/悪銭身に付かず/朝飯前/あちらが立てればこちらが立たぬ/羹に懲りて膾を吹く/後の祭り/後は野となれ山となれ/痘痕)も靨/雨降って地固まる/案ずるより産むが易し/石橋を叩いて渡る/医者の不養生/急がば回れ/色気より食い気/言わぬが花/言わぬは言うにまさる/因果応報/上には上がある/氏より育ち/嘘から出た真/嘘つきは泥棒の始まり/内弁慶/生みの親より育ての親/瓜の蔓には茄子はならぬ/縁は異なもの味なもの/大男総身に知恵が回りかね/大風が吹けば桶屋が儲かる/男心と秋の空/男は度胸女は愛嬌/同じ釜の飯を食う/鬼の首を取ったよう/帯に短し襷に長し/思い立ったが吉日/温故知新/女心と秋の空
  か行 駕籠に乗る人担ぐ人そのまた草鞋を作る人/佳人薄命/稼ぐに追い付く貧乏なし/我田引水/金の切れ目が縁の切れ目/禍福は糾える縄の如し/壁に耳あり/果報は寝て待て/借りる時は地蔵顔、返す時は閻魔顔/枯れ木も山の賑わい/可愛い子には旅をさせよ/棺を覆いて事定まる/聞いて極楽見て地獄/京の夢大阪の夢/今日は人の身明日は我が身/玉石混淆/清水の舞台から飛び降りる/口から出れば世間/口は禍の門/苦は楽の種/苦しい時の神頼み/芸は身を助ける/光陰矢の如し/孝行をしたい時分に親は無し/弘法にも筆の誤り/弘法筆を選ばず/小娘と小袋は油断がならぬ/転ばぬ先の杖/転んでもただでは起きない
  さ行 去る者は日日に疎し/触らぬ神に祟りなし/山椒は小粒でもぴりりと辛い/自業自得/地獄で仏/親しき仲にも礼儀あり/釈迦に説法/柔よく剛を制す/小人閑居して不善を為す/知らぬが仏/知らぬは亭主ばかりなり/針小棒大/好きこそ物の上手なれ/過ぎたるは猶及ばざるが如し/住めば都/急いては事を仕損じる/背に腹は代えられぬ/船頭多くして船山へ上る/善は急げ/総領の甚六/葬礼帰りの医者話/袖すり合うも他生の縁/備えあれば憂いなし/損して得取れ
  た行 大は小を兼ねる/宝の持ち腐れ/他山の石/ただより高い物はない/棚から牡丹餅/旅は道連れ世は情け/玉に疵/足るを知る者は富む/短気は損気/塵も積もれば山となる/つうと言えばかあ/爪に火を灯す/敵は本能寺にあり/鉄は熱いうちに打て/出る杭は打たれる/天に向かって唾を吐く/灯台下暗し/遠くの親類よりも近くの他人/毒を食わば皿まで/毒を以て毒を制す/団)栗の背比べ/丼勘定
  な行 無い袖は振れぬ/長い物には巻かれろ/情けは人の為ならず/ならぬ堪忍するが堪忍/苦虫を噛み潰したよう/憎まれっ子、世に憚る/似た者夫婦/人間万事、金の世の中/寝ていて転んだ例なし/寝耳に水/残り物に福がある/喉元過ぎれば熱さを忘れる/乗りかかった船/暖簾に腕押し
は行 背水の陣/馬鹿と鋏は使いよう/馬鹿に付ける薬はない/馬鹿の一つ覚え/箸にも棒にもかからない/始めが大事/花より団子/早いが勝ち/腹が減っては戦ができぬ/人のふり見て我がふり直せ/人の褌で相撲を取る/人は見かけによらぬもの/人は見目よりただ心/人を見たら泥棒と思え/瓢箪から駒が出る/貧すれば鈍する/貧乏暇なし/覆水盆に返らず/武士は食わねど高楊枝/下手な鉄砲も数撃ちゃ当たる/下手の長談義/骨折り損の草臥れ儲け/盆と正月が一緒に来たよう
 ま行 蒔かぬ種は生えぬ/負けるが勝ち/馬子にも衣装/待てば海路の日和あり/ミイラ取りがミイラになる/身から出た錆/身の程を知れ/身を捨ててこそ浮かぶ瀬もあれ/昔とった杵柄/無理が通れば道理引っ込む/目糞、鼻糞を笑う/目の上の瘤/目は口ほどに物を言う/餅は餅屋/物は言いよう/門前の小僧習わぬ経を読む
 や行 焼け石に水/安物買いの銭失い/柳に風/柳の枝に雪折れなし/油断大敵/世は相持ち/夜目遠目笠の内/寄らば大樹の陰/弱り目に祟り目
 ら行 来年の事を言えば鬼が笑う/楽あれば苦あり/良薬は口に苦し/論語読みの論語知らず/論より証拠
 わ行  若い時の苦労は買うてもせよ/禍を転じて福となす/渡る世間に鬼はない/笑う門には福来る/破れ鍋に綴じ蓋       
第II部 英語のことわざを日本語で表現すると
1 数にまつわる表現編
A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
A cat has nine lives.
A fool at forty is a fool indeed.
A man is a fool or a physician at thirty.
A stitch in time saves nine.
Custom is a second nature.
First come, first served.
First impressions are the most lasting.
Fish and guests stink after three days.
From clogs to clogs in only three generations.
Genius is one percent inspiration and ninety-nine perspiration.
Give him an inch, and he’ll take a mile.
If you run after two hares you will catch neither.
It needs more skill than I can tell to play the second fiddle well.
It takes two to make a quarrel.
Kill two birds with one stone.
Life begins at forty.
Nineteen nay-says of a maiden and half a grant.  
No one can serve two masters.
Once a thief, always a thief.
One funeral makes many.
One picture is worth ten thousand words.
One swallow does not make a summer.
One wedding brings another.
Possession is nine points of the law.
Second thoughts are best.
Third time lucky.
Three may keep a secret, if two of them are dead.
Two boys are half a boy, and three boys are no boy at all.
Two dogs strive for a bone, and a third runs away with it.
Two heads are better than one.
Two is company, but three is none.
Two of a trade never agree.
2 動物にまつわる表現編
A barking dog never bites.
A dog’s nose and a maid’s knees are always cold.
A live dog is better than a dead lion.
All his geese are swans.
An ape’s an ape, a varlet’s a varlet, though they be clad in silk or scarlet.
an ass in a lion’s skin.
Better an egg today than a hen tomorrow.
Better be the head of a dog than the tail of a lion.
Big fish eat little fish.
Birds of a feather flock together.
Burn not your house to scare away the mice. 
Curiosity killed the cat.
Don’t count your chickens before they are hatched.
Don’t put the cart before the horse.
Don’t throw pearls to swine.
Eagles don’t catch flies.
Even a worm will turn.
Every cock will crow upon his own dunghill.
Every dog has his day.
Fine feathers make fine birds.
First catch your hare.
Give a dog a bad name and hang him.
Hungry dogs will eat dirty puddings.
If wishes were horses, beggars would ride.
It is a sad house where the hen crows louder than the cock.
It is a silly fish that is caught twice with the same bait.
It is the last straw that breaks the camel’s back.
It is too late to shut the stable-door after the horse has bolted.
Laws catch flies, but let hornets go free.
Let sleeping dogs lie.
Love me, love my dog.
Never look a gift horse in the mouth.
The cat would eat fish but would not wet her feet.
The early bird catches the worm.
The higher the monkey climbs the more he shows his tail.
The leopard does not change his spots.
The mad dog bites his master.
The mountains have brought forth a mouse.
There are no birds in last year’s nest.
When the cat’s away, the mice will play.
You can take a horse to the water but you can’t make him drink.
You cannot catch old birds with chaff.
You cannot teach an old dog new tricks.
3 色にまつわる表現編
A black hen lays a white egg.
A hedge between keeps friendship green.
All cats are grey in the dark.
Blue are the hills that are far away.
Every cloud has a silver lining.
If the master says the crow is white the servant must not say it’s black.
It is ill to drive black hogs in the dark.
The devil is not so black as he is painted.
The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. 
The grey mare is the better horse.
The pot calls the kettle black.
There’s a black sheep in every flock.
Two blacks do not make a white.
4 その他の興味深い表現編
A bad workman always blames his tools.
A burnt child dreads the fire.
A drowning man will catch [clutch] at a straw.
A fair face is half a portion.
A fair face may hide a foul heart.
A fool may give a wise man counsel.
A fool’s tongue is long enough to cut his throat.
A friend in need is a friend indeed.
A friend to everybody is a friend to nobody.
A good husband makes a good wife.
A good wife is a good prize.
A light purse makes a heavy heart.
A little knowledge [learning] is a dangerous thing.
A miss is as good as a mile.
A rolling stone gathers no moss.
A sound mind in a sound body.
A wise man changes his mind, but a fool never.
Actions speak louder than words.
All is not gold that glitters.
All is well that ends well.
All roads lead to Rome.
All things are difficult before they are easy.
All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.
All’s fair in love and war.
Always look on the bright side.
An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.
An idle brain is the Devil’s workshop.
An idle youth, a needy age.
Art is long and life is short.
Attack is the best form of defense.
Bad money drives out good.
Bad [Ill] news travels fast.
Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.
Beauty is only [but] skin-deep.
Better go to heaven in rags than to hell in embroidery.
Better to wear out than to rush out.
Better wed over the mixen than over the moor.
Birth is much, but breeding is more.
Blood is thicker than water.
Brevity is the soul of wit.
Caesar’s wife must be above suspicion.
Call no man happy till he dies.
Claw me, and I’ll claw thee [you].
Cut your coat according to your cloth.
Dead men tell no tales.
Death is the great leveller.
Death keeps no calendar.
Distance lends enchantment to the view.
Don’t halloo till you are out of the wood.
Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.
Don’t teach your grandmother how to suck eggs.
Doing nothing is doing ill.
Dreams go by contraries.
Dying is as natural as living.
Early to bed and early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.
Easier said than done.
Eat to live, not live to eat.
Empty vessels make the most sound.
Every flow must have its ebb.
Every Jack has his Jill.
Every man has his humour.
Every man is his own worst enemy.
Extremes are dangerous.
Extremes meet.
Faint heart never won fair lady.
Familiarity breeds contempt.
Feed by measure and defy the physician.
Fields have eyes and woods have ears.
Friendship cannot stand always on one side.
Full of courtesy, full of craft.
Gather ye rosebuds while ye may.
Gluttony kills me than the sword.
Go further and fare worse.
God [Heaven] helps those who help themselves.
Good company on the road is the shortest cut.
Great oaks from little acorns grow.
Handsome is as handsome does.
Happy is he that is happy in his children.
Haste makes waste.
He laughs best who laughs last.
He that touches pitch shall be defiled.
He who is absent is always wrong.
He who would climb the ladder must begin at the bottom.
Home is where the heart is.
Homer sometimes nods.
Honesty is the best policy.
Hunger is the best sauce.
If there were no clouds, we should not enjoy the sun.
If you don’t like it, you can lump it.
Ill weeds grow apace.
In the country of the blind, the one-eyed man is king.
It is a long lane that has no turning.
It is ill striving against the stream.
It is never too late to learn.
It is no use crying over spilt milk.
It is too late to grieve when the chance is past.
It never rains but it pours.
It takes all sorts to make a world.
Jack of all trades, and master of none.
Know thyself.
Laugh and grow fat.
Least said, soonest mended.
Lend your money and lose your friend.
Let bygones be bygones.
Let him that is without sin cast the first stone.
Life isn’t all cakes and ale.
Like father, like son.
Like for like.
Like knows like.
Like master, like man.
Little leaks sink the ship.
Live and learn.
Live and let live.
Look before you leap.
Love is blind.
Love is without reason.
Love laughs at locksmiths.
Love will find a way.
Lovers’ quarrels are soon mended.
Make haste slowly.
Make hay while the sun shines.
Man cannot live by bread alone.
Man’s extremity is God’s opportunity.
Many kiss the hand they wish cut off.
Marriage is destiny.
Marriages are made in heaven.
Marry in haste and repent at leisure.
Might is right.
Moderation in all things.
Money is a good servant but a bad master.
Money is power.
Money is the root of all evil.
Money makes a man.
Money makes money.
Money makes the mare go.
Money talks.
More haste, less speed.
Much water goes by the mill that the miller knows not of.
Never do things by halves.
Never say die.
Never speak ill of the dead.
Never trouble trouble till trouble troubles you.
New brooms sweep clean.
No news is good news.
No pain, no gain.
Nothing comes of nothing.
Nothing is certain but the unforeseen.
Old friends are best.
One cannot love and be wise.
One man’s meat is another man’s poison.
Out of sight, out of mind.
Physician, heal thyself.
Practice makes perfect.
Pride feels no pain.
Rome was not built in a day.
Save for a rainy day.
See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil.
Seeing is believing.
Set a thief to catch a thief.
Slow and steady wins the race.
So many countries, so many customs.
Soon ripe, soon rotten.
Spare the rod and spoil the child.
Speech is silver, but silence is golden.
Talk of the Devil, and he is bound [sure] to appear.
The belly has no ears.
The best of friends must part.
The best-laid schemes of mice and men gang aft agley.
The busiest men have the most leisure.
The calmest husbands make the stormiest wives.
The child is father of the man.
The customer is always right.
The danger past and God forgotten.
The die is cast.
The eyes are the window of the soul.
The face is the index of the mind.
The grapes are sour.
The hand that rocks the cradle rules the world.
The husband is always the last to know.
The more you get, the more you want.
The quarrel of lovers is the renewal of love.
The voice of the people is the voice of God.
There is luck in leisure.
There is no accounting for tastes [preferences].
There is no royal road to learning.
There is no smoke without fire.
There is safety in numbers.
There’s many a good tune played on an old fiddle.
There’s many a slip between cup and lip. 
There’s no fool like an old fool.
There’s no place like home.
Time and tide wait for no man.
Time flies.
Time is money.
To err is human, to forgive, divine.
Tomorrow is another day.
Too many cooks spoil the broth.
Truth is stranger than fiction.
Want is the mother of industry.
We see the faults of others but not our own.
What’s sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander.
When in Rome, do as the Romans do.
When one door shuts, another opens.
When poverty comes in at the door, love flies out of the window.
When the wine is in, the wit is out.
Where there is a will, there is a way.
Where there’s life, there’s hope.
Whom the gods love die young.
Wine has drowned more men than the sea.
Wise men learn by other men’s mistakes, fools, by their own.
You cannot see the wood for the trees.  

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